Appendicular Skeleton

Pectoral Limb Pectoral Girdle

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Shoulder Scapula (shoulder blade)
Clavicle (cats only)
HumerusCondyle, “Pulley”

Radius
Ulna
Olecranon 21 Muscle attachments makes the elbow work. Fracture of the elbow – Cannot extend the front leg

Anconeal process – “Beak” of the ulna

Carpus – Wrist made up of the Carpal bones
Paw – Metacarpus “Beyond the Carpus” 5 Bones, each articulates with a digit composed of 3 phalanges P1, P2, P3
1st Digit “Thumb”P1 & P2 are fused
P3 – Claw “Dew claw”

Bone Damage

Fractured – Broken
Luxated – Out of joint
Subluxated – Almost out of joint – common in hip dysplasia

Pelvic Limb

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Hip Bones. Immovable joint with sacrum. Bony Pelvis
Ilium – Joined to Sacrum
Ischium – caudoventrally from Sacrum
Pubis – Cranio ventral from Sacrum
Acetabulum – Composed of parts of all three

Pelvic symphysis– Ischium & Pubis form Pelvic Symphysis – Passage of Fetus through this canal

Femur Neck attaches to the shaft of the Femur the Head of the Femur – “Ball and Socket” joint Acetabulum – (Socket) Articulation

Hip Dysplasia – malformed ball and socket.

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Distal – end of the femur has 2 condyles which articulate with head of Tibia
Trochlea – Trochlear groove for the articulation and sliding of the Patella (knee cap)
Tibial Crest malposition – May cause Luxation of Patella
Fibula –Thin non weight bearing bone serves as attachment of lateral collateral ligament. Used in cranial cruciate ligament surgery.

Tibial Tarsal Bone
Metatarsus – 4 bones Attach to P1, P2, P3

Bone Movement

Extension – to move away from gravity
Flexion to pull in toward the body
Abduction – Out away from body Sacrotuberous
Adduction – In – toward the body “add” to the body

Muscular System

Muscles work with the skeleton to function in the locomotor system.
Storehouse for glycogen – energy

Extensors – Antigravity – more powerful
Flexors – Less powerful – If cut can still stand
Adductors – Muscles that move a limb toward the body
Abductors – Muscles that move a limb away from the body

-Muscles cannot push only pull

Fixed Attachment – Origin of a muscle is the attachment that is closest to body

Moving Attachment – Insertion of a muscle is the end that is away from body

Hypertrophy – (excessive growth)
Atrophy – (no growth) wasting
Dystrophy – (poor growth) “Poor posture”

Scar tissue forms when cut, therefore cut parallel not through also avoids vessels & nerves

Tonus –Minimum constant tone to the normal muscles of an animal
Flaccidity –loss of muscle tone
Tetany – Excessive tonus
Anesthesia – Reduce tone therefore be careful when moving anesthetized animal

Joints – Arthrosis

Articulations Different types

Diarthrosis – Freely Moveable – Hip, shoulder
Synarthrosis – Immovable – Cranium, hip bones– Ball – Socket– Hip
Hinge – Elbow
Pivot – Neck lst , 2nd vertebrae
Gliding – Carpal & tarsal

Cartilage
Cartilage on ends of bones serve as frictionless surface for movement. Cartilage and joint capsule produce: Synovia fluid – frictionless – “Oil”

Arthritis – Inflammation of Joints
Luxation – when joint out of socket not touching normal surfaces
Subluxation –Partial contact of joint surfaces

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