Environmental

  • 5. Environmental
  • 5.1 Heat Stroke
  • 5.2 Allergic Reactions

Insect bites, vaccine reaction, contact allergy, food allergy.
SIGNS:
Swelling of face, ears, lips, mouth, wheals on skin, redness to skin, and skin is often very itchy. May see vomiting and diarrhea. Signs usually develop within 20 minutes of exposure.
ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK is an immediate and severe reaction which can rapidly progress to death if treatment is not available. SIGNS: Acute collapse, pale gums, weak but rapid pulse, cold extremities and coma. Vaccine reactions and insect stings are common causes of anaphylactic shock. VACCINES SHOULD NEVER BE GIVEN WITHOUT A VETERINARIAN PRESENTBECAUSE OF THERISK OF A REACTION TO THE VACCINE RESULTING IN FATAL SHOCK!!!!
In DOGS, the liver is the main “shock organ” in an anaphalatic reaction. In CATS, the gastrointestinal and respiratory system are the main “shock organs”.

  • 6. Toxins
  • 6.1 Poisonings

Poisonings are either:

  • 1. Swallowed
  • 2. Inhaled
  • 3. Absorbed
  • 4. Injected

EMERGENCY TREATMENT:

Depending on the character of the poison or toxin, different methods of emergency treatments should be employed. It is very important to make every effort to determine the source of the poisoning. Any packages, medicine containers, or vomitus should be brought with you to the veterinarian. This can save critical time in the selection of the appropriate antidote and treatment.

INGESTION:

If you are instructed to INDUCE VOMITING in a poisoned pet, this can be achieved by oral administration of 2 oz of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. If vomiting does occur, keep the vomitus and transport it with your pet to the veterinarian. If the ingested substance is very acidic, alkaline or caustic, vomiting IS NOT GOOD! Instead, washing the mouth with cool water and oral administration of baking soda or milk may be indicated.

CUTANEOUS (SKIN) EXPOSURE:

Bathe the pet in Dawn Dishwashing liquid to remove the offending substance as soon as possible.
IF AT ALL POSSIBLE, A VETERINARIAN SHOULD BE CONSULTED AS SOON AS A POISONING IS SUSPECTED AND BEFORE ANY SELF-ADMINISTRATION OF TREATMENT IS ATTEMPTED. TRANSPORT TO A VETERINARIAN EVEN IF PET SEEMS NORMAL.

COMMON POISONS:

  • 1. ASPIRIN – Very toxic to cats. Signs: Excitation, staggering, vomiting, salivation, and bloody diarrhea.
  • 2. ACETOMINOPHEN (Tylenol) – VERY toxic to cats. Signs: Cyaosis (blue gums and tongue), swelling of face and feet, brown color to blood. In dogs: May also see bloody urine and yellow color to eyes.
  • 3. ORGANOPHOSPHATE (Dursban) – Signs: Increased salivation, urination, lacrimation, and diarrhea. Small pupils, muscle tremors, staggering and seizures.
  • 4. ANTICOAGULANTS (Rat poisoning) – The type of rat poisoning is very important. If at all possible, BRING THE PACKAGE WITH YOU TO THE VETERINARIAN. (1) First generation coumarins (D-Con, WARF 42, Ratron) (2) Second generation coumarin (Havoc, Talon, Contrac brodifacoum, bromadiolone) (3) Indanedione (diphacinone, Caid, Drat, Quick) Depending on the type of rat bait, length of treatment may range from 7-30 days. Signs: Depression, weakness, and pale gums. Excessive bleeding from the nose, gums, wounds or blood in the urine, feces or saliva. Excessive bruising. Acute collapse may occur from massive internal bleeding into the lungs or abdomen with few or no previous clinical signs.
  • 5. CHOLECALCIFEROL (Mouse-B-Gone, Rampage, Rat-B-Gone, Quintox_ Causes fatal mineralization of the vessel walls, kidney and lungs. Signs: Kidney failure, i.e., excessive urination or total lack of urine output, bleeding as with anticoagulant toxicity.
  • 6. CHOCOLATES – Most chocolate poisonings result from ingestion of DARK or COOKING chocolate as opposed to milk chocolate. Signs: Vomiting, diarrhea, hyperactivity, restlessness, muscle tremor, seizures, or rapid heart rate.
  • 7. ETHYLENE GLYCOL (Antifreeze) – Signs: Depression, staggering, drunken behavior, vomiting, increased urination. IT ONLY TAKES 1 TEASPOON TO KILL A CAT; 1 TABLESPOON TO KILL A DOG!!!! Antifreeze TASTES GOOD AND PETS WILLINGLY DRINK IT IF THEY HAVE ACCESS!!!!
  • 8. METALDEHYDE (Snail bait) – Signs: Anxiety, muscle tremors, jerking movements of the eyes, hyperthermia (>106), all other signs of heat stroke, DIC. Death is due to respiratory collapse.
  • 9. PYRETHRIN (Adams, Mycodex, Raid) – Signs: Tremors, salivation, vomiting, incoordination, star gazing, i.e., head pulled upward and over back. Signs often seen after flea bath or dip, especially if using DOG products on CATS!
  • 10. STRYCHNINE (Gopher bait) – Common malicious poisoning of pets. Signs: Seizures, extreme muscle rigidity, and hypersensitivity to noise. Vomit may contain turquoise blue granules or seeds with this color coating.
  • 11. TOAD (Common yard toads) – Poison is contained in the skin secretions of the toad. Signs: Profuse salivation, injected mucous membranes, seizures.
  • 7. Genitourinary
  • 7.1 Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease
  • 7.2 Bladder Infections
  • 7.3 Difficult Whelping C-Sections

DYSTOCIA (DIFFICULT BIRTH)

For the first 24 hours prior to delivery, body temperature drops from a normal of 101.5 to 99-100. First signs of labor are restlessness, licking of genitals, scratching in whelping or queening box, frequent urination and vocalization. Dogs and cats lay on their side during contractions. A clear discharge will appear first followed by a bloody discharge. Most pets deliver their litter in 2-6 hours with 10 minutes to 2 hours between each birth. There should be a placenta passed for each birth. It is normal for the mother to want to consume the placenta but this may cause diarrhea. Within 24 hours of parturition, you should have the mother and offspring examined by a veterinarian. An injection is usually given at this time to stimulate contraction of the uterus and to expel any retained tissues.
A dystocia or difficult birth is signaled by: (1) Strong contractions for 1 hour without a birth, (2) More than 1 hour between fetuses, (3) Partial expulsion of a fetus, (4) appearance of bloody discharge without subsequent passage of fetus, (5) Passage of foul smelling discharge, (6) Passage of gestation period without birth in an animal confirmed pregnant, and (7) Failure to pass all feti when number was confirmed on ultrasound.
Certain breeds and individual dogs/cats may be predisposed to dystocia, e.g., Bulldogs, Pugs, Lahsa Apsa, Shitzu, Persian, Himalayan, Chiahuahua and other toy or brachycephalic (smush faced) breeds. Also, known matings in which the stud was much larger than the bitch are prone to dystocia. Prolonged gestation may indicate a problem. In these cases, it is wise to consult your veterinarian to perform an ultrasound to establish if a pet is pregnant, and to determine the number, viability and size of feti. If a dystocia is likely, an elective C-Section can then be planned as opposed to dealing with it as an emergency.

C-SECTIONS

Before the C-Section, it is best to plan ahead. Have our emergency numbers on hand and make sure we are available. A mother will usually birth within 12 hours of her temperature dropping below 100 degrees. A carrying basket or crate will be necessary for transporting the pups or kittens. Plenty of towels or blankets are also helpful. A heating pad or hot water bottle is good. The pad will be plugged in while the surgery is being done so a warm box will be ready for the new pups or kittens to go home in.

INDICATIONS FOR A C-SECTION

  • 1. Prolonged Gestation
    • – 70 days from last breeding
  • 2. Pelvic Obstruction
    • – Breeds such as a Bulldog or Persian
  • – Previous injury
    • – Fetal oversize
  • 3. Strong Contractions
    • – 45 Min. without expulsion of a puppy
  • 4. Weak Contractions
    • – 4 hours without expulsion of a puppy-
    • – Or infrequent contractions
    • – Or 4 hours or more between puppies
  • 5. Failure to Labor
    • – 24 hours or more after drop in temperature
  • 6. Pain
    • – Mother in obvious pain in delivery
  • 7. Radiographic or Ultrasound Abnormalities
  • 8. Previous History of Problems
  • 9. Ill or Weak Mother

Diagnosis: Difficulty in partuition or planned Cesarean section to reduce further maternal or fetal danger. C-sections done before day 58 or 59 of pregnancy are associated with a high degree of fetal loss, therefore breeding and heat dates are important.

Preparation: All candidates for C-section are started on I.V. fluids prior to the surgery to improve their cardiovascular status during the surgery and to compensate for the large volume of fluids lost from the uterus. A pre-operative ultrasound is recommended to give us an idea of the fetal viability. The surgical site will be shaved and sterile dressed and scrubbed prior to anesthesia.

Pre-Medication: Is given to the bitch 20 minutes prior to the surgery to reduce respiratory secretions and gastrointestinal motility. These medications reduce the chance of vomiting and heart problems during the surgery and recovery periods.

Anesthesia: The anesthetic agents are chosen for their safety to the mother and low sedative effect on the fetus. Only the highest quality and advanced techniques are used at Safari. Unless there are complicating circumstances, the mother will be able to go home within 3 hours of the surgery.

Puppy Care: The puppies will be stimulated to breathe immediately after removal from the bitch. This is accomplished by vigorously rubbing and swinging the puppies to clear fluid from the respiratory tract. The puppies will be given a respiratory stimulant (Dopram) to help sustain normal respiration. They will then be placed in a heated incubator with oxygenated airflow. The puppies will be checked for congenital defects and will also be treated for any other problems as needed. The umbilical cords are medicated and are left to dry and fall off on their own.

Post-Operative Care of the Bitch: The bitch will be able to nurse her puppies shortly after the surgery. Close observation will be necessary as the anesthetics make the bitches reaction to the puppies unpredictable. Antibiotics will only be given if indicated. Dietary needs of the bitch are very important. Commercial dog food will not supply the needed calories for a post-parturient bitch. Her needs will quadruple in the next three weeks. If she loses weight during this period, her diet is not adequate. Feed her Hill’s P/D for the optimal nutrition until the puppies are weaned.

Suture Removal: Sutures are usually stainless steel staples. These will be removed in 10 to 14 days.

PUPPY CARE FACTS:

  • Note: The time periods and growth rates may differ if a C-section delivers the puppies earlier or later than they would have been normally born.
  • The puppy should nurse vigorously and compete with littermates for a nipple.
  • Eyes should open between 10 and 16 days; Ears open between 15 to 17 days.
  • Respiratory Rate is 8 to 18 breaths per minute for the first 24 hours of life, then increases to 15 to 35 for the first 5 weeks.
    • Heart Rate is 120 to 150 beats per minute for the first 24 hours of life, then accelerates up to 220 for the first 5 weeks.
  • The puppies body temperature is 94 to 97 degrees F for the first two weeks of life. They depend on external heat for the first 6 days.
  • Hypothermia is the number one killer of puppies less than one week old. Puppies will not nurse and will breathe erratically as their temperature drops.
  • After the first 48 hours, the puppies should gain weight daily.
    • Weight gain should cause the birth weight to double in 7 to 10 days.
    • The birth weight should increase by 6 to 10 times by 6 weeks of age.
    • 50% of the adult weight is reached at 4 months of age.
    • Supplemental feeding is adequate only in the strongest puppies due to the fact that the nipple will wear the jaw muscles out prior to filling the stomach. This effect is seen on the second or third day of bottle feeding due to mouth soreness. Weak puppies cannot be fed by bottle.
    • The puppy should be held in a natural flat nursing position to avoid allowing the milk to go into the trachea.
    • Hypothermia should be corrected prior to feeding as the milk will not be digested at below normal body temperature.
    • Tube Feeding is an acceptable and convenient rapid way of supplying the nutritional needs of a puppy or kitten.
    • Tail and dewclaw are ideally removed at three days of age. They must be removed prior to the eyes opening.
    • The puppies are de-wormed at three weeks of age.
    • Weaning to a solid food starts at three weeks of age.
    • Complete weaning from milk should be at six weeks of age.
    • Vaccinations should start at 6 to 8 weeks of age.
    • Puppies should not be separated from their littermates until after 8 weeks of age to avoid personality defects.

BITCH CARE FACTS:

  • Feed Hill’s P/D for the next 6 to 8 weeks.
  • A bloody discharge will be present for the next 3 to 4 weeks.
  • Watch for bleeding or inflammation at the incision site.
  • A nervous bitch can sometimes be calmed by Vitamin C administration (500 mg twice daily).
  • After a C-section, a bitch may not produce milk for 48 hours. Tube feeding will be necessary.
  • Fever or loss of appetite indicate the possibility of an infected uterus and can be serious.
  • Hot, red, or painful mammary glands indicate mastitis and can be a serious complication. Do not allow the puppies to nurse on a nipple that is affected.
  • 7.4 Milk Fever

MILK FEVER, ECLAMPSIA, HYPOCALCEMIC TETANY

These terms apply to a condition most often seen in small breed dogs 2-3 weeks after delivery of a large litter, but may occur prior to delivery, or at any time during lactation.

Signs: Behavioral changes, restlessness, paresis, hypersensitivity to sound or light, muscle tremors, tetany (stiff, extended legs) or seizures. Without treatment, severe cases can be fatal.